Occupational therapy practice is a model involving theoretical principles to inform the assessment process and shape interventions. This approach ensures that strategies employed are based on research evidence, client needs, and best practices.
Models of practice provide a theoretical framework for understanding how occupation can help to promote clients’ occupational performance. They are not predetermined intervention protocols but rather a way of viewing employment from a theoretical perspective, emphasizing the client’s performance. Models of practice are often used to evaluate further and refine a particular theory.
What is occupational therapy theory?
Occupational therapy theory is an interdisciplinary field that addresses how humans interact with their environments to facilitate optimal mental health, well-being, and development. It is based on evidence-based practice that combines theoretical models from many disciplines, including physical, psychological, and social sciences.
The primary goal of occupational therapy is to enable clients and populations to participate in meaningful activities in their daily lives with a focus on occupations. People engage in daily activities, such as sleeping, taking care of hygiene, engaging in leisure activities, and participating in work or school. These are all occupations.
Using theory in occupational therapy involves applying principles and empirical evidence from research to assessment, treatment planning, implementation, and evaluation. With that in mind, the American International College (AIC) offers occupational therapy doctorate programs for those interested in venturing into the occupational therapy profession. Recognized for excellence, innovation, and scholarship, this program provides a comprehensive learning experience that intertwines four distinct aspects: clinical practice, education, research, and advocacy.
AIC has provided educational opportunities for people from all walks of life for many years, focusing on diversity, access, and inclusion. Earning this degree will enable individuals to contribute to the profession’s progress by boosting their capacity to utilize research-based methods and research in clinical, community, and educational contexts.
Advancing occupational therapy theory
Here are several ways of advancing occupational therapy theory.
Applying theories to practice
Applying theories to practice is a fundamental component of advancing occupational therapy theory. This approach involves exploring and analyzing the relationship between theory and practice to develop well-informed interventions based on the best available evidence.
Through this process, practitioners can better understand how to apply theories to different contexts and client populations. Practitioners can use theories as a lens to gain insight into previously unrecognized issues, to better understand a client’s occupational functioning, and to inform the creation of a complete and individualized intervention plan.
In exploring different models and frameworks, practitioners will understand how theories help to inform practice and how best to incorporate such models into their interventions. By investigating and discussing other occupational therapy theories, practitioners can gain new insight into how ideas can inform their work.
Building on existing theories
Building on existing theories is advancing occupational therapy theory by incorporating and revising existing principles within the field. Ideas often provide a foundation for understanding concepts and can provide insight into how to approach a goal or problem.
By exploring contemporary models and frameworks, practitioners can use the existing theories as a starting point. They can then develop new strategies and explanations for using occupational therapy to better treat and address components within the field.
Such exploration can reveal new approaches to handling clients’ issues and provide insight into how existing theories can be applied to new situations. Exploring contemporary models and frameworks can help practitioners identify new solutions to existing problems and challenge existing approaches through rigorous testing.
Through this type of exploration, occupational therapy theory can be advanced and adapted to better meet the field’s needs.
Creating new theories and models
Creating new theories and models allows practitioners to develop and test new ways to understand, assess, and treat various psychological, social, and physical issues. New approaches and models can help practitioners further their understanding and ability to work with clients.
Such models can provide a framework to understand occupational behavior better and assist with assessment and intervention planning. They can also lead to better client outcomes and innovative treatment options.
New theories and models are beneficial in that they can also assist in exploring various aspects of clients’ lives, including their environment, culture, society, and physical abilities. Such theories and models help practitioners build trust with clients and understand their needs and unique perspectives.
Integrating different approaches
Integrating different approaches advances occupational therapy theory by combining theoretical and practical approaches, such as cognitive-behavioral, biological, psychosocial, and environmental models.
Practitioners can identify and address their patients’ needs by looking at contemporary models and frameworks. Combining different approaches could include examining the social determinants of health, the impact of culture on behavior, and the physical environment in which patients live, for example.
Practitioners can also consider how a combined approach best addresses individual patient mental health strengths and challenges. Integrating different systems can open the door to a holistic reflection of the patient’s experience and better outcomes.
Utilizing technology and evidence-based practices
Technology can provide efficient data collection, analysis, and communication to benefit the practice. Evidence-based practice (EBP) encourages therapists to critically evaluate available research to best inform their decision-making on an individual basis.
Technology and EBP can work together to provide occupational therapists with an effective way to explore and further develop contemporary models and frameworks to apply to practice. Additionally, technology can allow for virtual-based consultation or delivery of immersive and fun activities for patients.
This may help extend the reach of occupational therapy to remote and difficult-to-access areas. By using technology and evidence-based practices to apply current models and frameworks, occupational therapists can improve individual patient care, develop new techniques, broaden the scope of services, and ultimately strengthen the profession.
Occupational therapy theory continues to evolve to meet the changing needs of clients. From physical and mental health-focused models to those focusing on the quality of life and wellness, various frameworks and models exist to consider.
It is the responsibility of practitioners to evaluate the evidence for each of these models and frameworks and their client’s individual needs to determine which will provide the most meaningful impact on their lives. By doing so, they can ensure that interventions are powerful and lasting.