Dents in the nails are small depressions forming on nails and are often referred to as nail pits. In many cases, the small depressions may arise without any particular reason, or they may occur due to vitamin deficiency. Let’s find possible causes and treatment of dents on nails.
Nails are made up of a protein called keratin. This protein component forms on both the fingers and toes. The work of keratin is to protect the nail bed and nerve endings. It is important to note that healthy nails are normally free from dents, spots, brittleness, and breakage.
However, nails that split, break easily, and dent may be an indication of an underlying cause that may be in the urgent need to check. Below are some of the known possible causes of dents in nails:
An injury from physical activities or manual work or direct accident or frequent nail biting can cause the nails to split and dent.
Psoriasis is a skin condition that can cause dry plaques to appear on any part of the body. Psoriasis other than causing flare-ups of symptoms on the skin, it is also known to cause splits and dents on fingernails and toenails.
However, several medications can be administered to get rid of this condition, and some of such medications include salicylic acid creams, steroid creams and injections, tar preparations, vitamin D supplements, and anthralin creams. When one is suffering from psoriasis, they should avoid drinking excess alcohol as it can trigger more symptoms of psoriasis.
Alopecia areata is a condition that causes total or partial hair loss. This condition can also cause dents in the fingernails.
Reiter syndrome is a type of arthritis that occurs in response to a bacterial infection. The symptoms of this syndrome include swelling and pain in the joints, inflammation of the urinary tract, and eyes.
According to the University of Maryland medical school, Reiter syndrome results in severe damage and modification to the production of keratin (a protein that plays a role in the structure of the nails), and this further results in dents in fingernails, especially in women.
According to the University of Maryland medical school, medical treatment for Reiter syndrome includes immunosuppressant, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors.
Fungal disease of the nails usually accompanies itself with symptoms like bright white discoloration, a yellow hue, splits, and dents on nails. And sometimes, when the nails are overwhelmed by the activity of the fungal disease, the nails can become thicker and brittle in texture.
Incontinentia pigmenti, though uncommon, is a genetic disorder that arises as a result of mutations within the genes, especially IKBKG genes. This disorder is usually characterized by symptoms such as dry patches on the skin, lines of hypo-pigmentation on legs and arms during adulthood. Also, split and dents in the fingernails and toenails may occur.
Blood circulation problems in the body due to underlying conditions such as anemia and high blood pressure can affect to a greater extent the health of fingernails and toenails, resulting in the appearance of dents and splits in nails.
An unhealthy diet and poor body absorption of vitamins result in vitamin deficiency. Vitamin deficiency, such as B-vitamins, which plays an important role in cell growth and deficiency of vitamin B-12, which strengthens nail growth, can result in fingernail splits and dents accompanied by white spots.
Also, lack of vitamins such as Vitamin C, calcium, iron, and zinc can result to nail abnormalities such as koilonychia and others. You need to visit your doctor for consultation and examination if you notice discoloration such as greenness and yellow nails.
Raynaud’s phenomenon is a disorder resulting from a series of discolorations of the fingers or toes after exposure to cold temperatures. This discoloration happens due to abnormal spasm of blood vessels that further affects blood flow to tissues. This hindrance of blood flow to tissues can result in dents and splits on fingernails.
Dents and splits may also appear in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy treatment.
The decrease in thyroid production is known as hypothyroidism, and it a condition that usually affects women who are over 50 years of age. Hypothyroidism does not cause noticeable symptoms in its early stages. At the early stages, it may cause symptoms such as thin, split, dented, and brittle nails. However, as time goes, hypothyroidism results in soft slow-growing nails with pale nail beds. Hypothyroidism can also cause more problems beyond spit and weak nails such as chronic conditions like pain in the joints, obesity, and infertility.
Other possible causes of dents on fingernails may include diabetes, medications, stress, hypocalcemia, cysts, and cancer.
Horizontal dents in nails run across the fingernail from one side to another and can be a sign of an underlying medical condition. These dents are often deep and may result to multiple lines to appear across the nail.
However, as indicated above, horizontal dents are often a sign of an underlying medical infection that requires examination and treatment. In some people with horizontal dents, the nails may stop growing until the underlying medical infection has been gotten rid of.
Some of the underlying conditions that can be responsible for horizontal dents include:
It is important that when you notice deep horizontal dents on your fingernails or toenails, you visit your doctor for examination, diagnosis, and treatment.
‘Small pitted dents in nail beds’ are small depressions appearing on the nail beds. These pitted dents can be shallow or deep, depending on the cause.
In many cases, small pitted dents in nail beds are usually found in people with psoriasis, or In case the pitting happens in people who are not infected with psoriasis. It’s usually a sign of an underlying condition.
Small pitting commonly occurs on fingernails, though it can occur on toenails. In many cases, the fingernail or toenail will have multiple pits or a single pit, which may have an appearance of a thimble.
It is advisable for People with small pitted dents in nail beds, to visit a doctor for examination, diagnosis, and treatment of the potential cause.
Some of the underlying conditions that can be responsible for small pitted dents in nail beds include:
The major cause of vertical lines is aging. The nails may begin to form single or multiple vertical ridges as they grow.
These lines run from the tip of the finger to the bottom of the nail, and these lines are usually not a cause for concern unless they are accompanied by symptoms such as pain or unsightly color changes. With a change in age, the fingernails and toenails may begin to show signs such as:
These symptoms, especially when you are above 50 years, should not be a cause for concern, but you can visit your dermatology for consultation and possibly examination.
Anemia can cause vertical ridges or dents in nails, and usually, the vertical lines (dents) are accompanied by changes in texture in the nails or color changes.
Splinter hemorrhage is a small blood clot beneath the nail beds, which results in vertical discolorations. It is always advisable to visit a doctor for examination and treatment, in case the cause of this small blood clot is not known.
Other underlying medical disorders that can cause vertical ridges to appear on the nail include:
Practicing preventative measures is the surest way of keeping your nails free from dents, lines, ridges, and other disorders, causing nail problems. Try the following simple steps to prevent the development of dents in your fingernails.
It is important to note that not all fingernail conditions are normal, visit your doctor for consultation and examination when you experience the following:
A host of different factors causes dents on nails. The treatment of this condition is done after identifying the underlying cause through various sessions of examination and diagnosis; in other words, treatment is done on a case by case basis after identification of the cause.